Typhoid - Overview, Symptoms, Prevention and Treatment



Typhoid fever is an infection caused by Salmonella typhi, a form of bacterium related to the organism that causes salmonella food poisoning. The infection may spread throughout the body and harm several organs. This infection has the ability to be fatal if not treated.

Typhoid fever symptoms

Typhoid is very infectious and spreads rapidly via contaminated food or drink. Infected people normally spread the bacterium to the outside world via their faeces and, in rare cases, through their urine. Typhoid fever is more widespread in areas of the globe with inadequate sanitation and hygiene, as well as a greater risk of consuming polluted drinking water.

According to the World Health Organization, an estimated 16 to 33 million cases occur globally each year, resulting in around 216,000 fatalities. Children and young people between the ages of 5 and 19 are most prone to infection. Among the signs of this illness are:

  • Fever often peaks around 39-40C (103-104F).
  • Muscle soreness and headache
  • Bloating and discomfort in the abdomen
  • Diarrhea, constipation, or vomiting

Typhoid Vaccine

Vaccination is important. Typhoid vaccinations aid in the prevention of typhoid. If it is not provided, it might result in significant problems such as a high temperature that can remain for a long period.

Inactivated Typhoid Vaccine: This is an injectable vaccine that gives protection and requires a booster dose every two years.

Schedule of Typhoid Vaccines

In India, the typhoid vaccine schedule is included in the list of mandatory immunizations that must be delivered immediately after the birth of a baby:

Doses - The first dosage of TCV is administered between the ages of 9 and 12 months.

Age Recommendation - The typhoid vaccine is best suited for children over the age of two. Alternatively, the TCV may be administered between the ages of 9 and 12 months.

Typhoid fever treatment

The Widal test is one of the laboratory tests used to detect typhoid. The test may not always be positive despite the presence of the infection since it has a low sensitivity and specificity, missing around 30% of positive infections. The IDL Tubex test, which can identify antibodies against the infection in minutes, and the Typhidot test, which takes three hours to detect the bacteria in serum, are more accurate and quicker diagnostics. If typhoid fever is caught early, it is typically treatable with a course of oral antibiotics. Serious, more advanced cases, on the other hand, may need intravenous antibiotics in a hospital environment. Typhoid fever may be avoided by practicing proper hygiene and sanitation and providing safe drinking water. Furthermore, typhoid vaccinations are available and are advised for those traveling to areas of the globe where the virus is common. Get your consultation and ask your queries regarding typhoid fever with our specialist at Bewell hospital.