Thyroid - Overview, Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors and Treatment

The thyroid is a tiny butterfly-shaped gland located in the neck just below Adam's apple. The thyroid can't be felt under the skin when it's functioning properly. The thyroid gland is located around the windpipe and generates hormones that control the body's metabolism, growth, and development. Thyroid hormones are released into the circulation on a regular basis, depending on the environment and surroundings, and are released in varying degrees. The pituitary gland sends signals to the thyroid gland about when and how much thyroid hormone should be released into circulation. When in a fight or flight situation, the body breaks down the thyroid hormones in the blood for quick utilization.

Types of Thyroid

  • Hypothyroidism
  • Graves' syndrome
  • Plummer's Illness
  • Adenoma Toxic
  • Thyroid nodules
  • Carcinoma of the thyroid

Risk Factors

Although thyroid disease may affect anybody, the risk is considerably increased if you are

  • A woman under the age of 40 or above the age of 50
  • You've had radiation therapy to your neck or upper chest.
  • You have Type 1 diabetes.
  • Symptoms

    The thyroid issue continues and manifests differently in men and women. While the majority of thyroid cancer cases are reported in women under the age of 40 or above the age of 50. The number of instances reported in men is substantially lower. The thyroid affects males differently, with the majority of the impacts being on fertility, libido, and erectile dysfunction.

    • Fatigue
    • Muscle twitching
    • Symptoms of respiratory distress
    • Swallowing Difficulties
    • Irritability
    • Intolerance to heat
    • Intolerance of cold
    • Palpitations
    • Leg swollenness
    • Spots of redness on the shin
    • Effects on sexual drive
    • Appetite decline
    • Weariness
    • Hair that is dry
    • Hair thinning
    • Fever
    • Irregular/Infrequent menstrual cycles.
    • Heavy menstrual bleeding
    • Diarrhoea
    • Sleeping problems
    • Oversleeping


    Autoimmune diseases Thyroid glands that are affected by autoimmune diseases such as Hashimoto's Disease and Graves' Disease behave improperly and change the number of thyroid hormones in the body.

    Iodine deficiency Iodine is required for the thyroid gland to operate properly. More thyroid tissue is produced in an attempt to absorb more iodine when the body is deficient in iodine. This abnormal development can result in an adenoma, cysts, or nodules, which can lead to difficulties and thyroid problems.

    Viral and bacterial infections Thyroid problems in humans may be caused by bacteria and viruses. These diseases can be treated if discovered early enough.

    Nodules Nodules form in the thyroid gland when the thyroid tissue grows too quickly. This happens when the thyroid glands expand too much in order to absorb more iodine. While the majority of nodules are benign, they can nevertheless cause pain in the neck, stiffness in the neck, and trouble swallowing for the patient.

    Cancerous tumors Few nodules and cysts that develop in the thyroid gland become malignant and actively assault the host. The best way to eliminate this core cause of thyroid issues is to remove the malignant cells with surgery.

    Surgery and certain treatments Surgically removing the thyroid gland can cause hypothyroidism and sometimes the usage of radioiodine can also result in fluctuations in the secretion of thyroid hormones. Thyroid disease can develop during pregnancy in a small percentage of women. When left untreated, these onsets can cause a variety of thyroid issues in both the mother and the baby, as well as death in certain circumstances.


    Thyroid disease is a controllable and treatable condition. Hypothyroidism can be treated using artificial synthetic tablets that can be used as a substitute to keep thyroid hormone levels in the blood at normal levels. Similarly, in the case of hyperthyroidism, radioactive iodine can be used to selectively treat thyroid gland disorders that are generating high thyroid hormone levels in the blood. When there is a risk of thyroid cancer owing to the existence of a nodule, adenoma, or a goiter, doctors will prescribe surgery or thyroid surgery. The patient would have to take synthetic thyroid tablets for the rest of his/her life as a result of having the thyroid gland removed.

    Recovery and Aftercare

    The recovery process for hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism is quite typical. There should be no issues as long as the patient adheres to the pharmaceutical regimen. People who have had thyroid surgery should avoid driving for 1-2 weeks and obtain as much rest as they can since they may have muscle soreness in the area of the incision, the neck, and the shoulder. Doctors will either prescribe Cytomel or Synthroid depending on the quantity of extra tissue removed during the surgery.