Dengue - Overview, Causes, Complications and Treatment

Dengue fever is a disease spread by the dengue virus, which is transmitted through mosquito bites. This virus is spread by the female Aedes mosquito. Fever symptoms generally appear three to fourteen days following the mosquito bite. A high temperature, headaches, vomiting, muscular discomfort, joint problems, and skin rashes/red spots are all possible symptoms.


High fever Temperatures ranging from 101 to 104 degrees Fahrenheit are common between 3 and 15 days after being exposed to the virus, and severe chills add to the pain.

Aches and pains It can occur everywhere in the body, including the muscles, bones, and joints. This occurs because the presence of the virus creates a vitamin and mineral deficit, resulting in aches and pains. Dengue fever is often referred to as "break-bone fever."

Nausea and Vomiting This is due to the fact that if the virus is potent and the patient's immunity is low, the virus will spread to the gastrointestinal tract. This shouldn't last more than a few days, and it shouldn't happen very often. If it does, the patient has severe dengue fever. Another issue with vomiting is dehydration.

Skin Rash A typical symptom of mild to moderate dengue is a rash on the skin. The rash usually appears 3-4 days after the initial fever. Initial symptoms include a patchy, flushed appearance with a patch of redness on the face. The trunk is the second location for the rash, which can extend out in all directions. Clustered dots, which can develop anywhere on the body once the fever has gone, are another kind of dengue rash. The majority of the time, it isn't itchy. They may improve on their own for a few days before reappearing suddenly.

Headaches Dengue fever is associated with headaches, lower back discomfort, and pain behind the eyes. It is associated with severe abdominal discomfort, which is a frequent symptom. It usually starts in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen.

Bloody Gums and Nose These are usually harmless but recurring.

Blood in the stools This occurs 3-5 days after the fever has passed. Dengue sufferers may notice black feces that resemble coal tar. MELENA is the name for this. This is caused by bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract.

Complications include blood vessels being damaged and leaky, as well as a sharp reduction in platelet count in the circulation. In certain situations, organ dysfunction in the form of lungs, heart, and liver may ensue. Along with the normal dengue symptoms, persistent bloody vomits and bruise-like forms on the skin may occur. This is a medical situation that requires immediate attention.

Dengue Fever Causes

Dengue fever is caused by one of four kinds of dengue viruses, which are carried by mosquitoes that flourish in and around human dwellings. When a mosquito bites a dengue virus-infected person, the virus enters the mosquito. Then the virus enters the bloodstream of the person who is bitten by this insect. Because the female Aedes mosquito that transmits dengue fever lives in clean but stagnant water, preventing stagnancy should be a priority to reduce the risk of infection.


Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever It is an uncommon condition that can develop in people who have dengue fever. This condition can result in a circulatory collapse and bleeding. Dengue fever of this kind is extremely hazardous, with death rates as high as 30%. Dengue hemorrhagic fever is particularly dangerous for children and babies. Symptoms of dengue hemorrhagic fever include nasal, stomach, and gum bleeding, among others.

Hepatic Dysfunction It is a condition in which the liver malfunctions. Dengue can cause hepatic dysfunction or liver failure. Dengue fever can cause a number of problems in people's livers. In some situations, it is essentially unaffected, but in others, liver failure is a possibility. Although the disease is uncommon, it is thought to have a known etiology.

Dengue Encephalitis It is a disease in which the dengue virus attacks the brain's neurons. In the majority of instances, it is preceded by shock. Reduced awareness, convulsions, and disorientation are all frequent symptoms. This disorder has the potential to be deadly.

Damage to the heart The dengue virus can cause cardiac problems. If it affects the heart, it causes structural and functional damage. The dengue virus has been related to pulmonary edema and shock, among other cardiac diseases. The cardiac damage caused by dengue fever is discussed in research titled Complete Heart Block in Association with Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever.

Febrile Convulsions Seizures that develop as a result of an illness in the body are known as febrile convulsions. During a certain stage of the virus's life cycle, dengue fever can induce febrile convulsions in youngsters.


Dengue fever can be treated using the following methods

1. If the dengue infection is moderate or in its early stages

To reduce pain and fever, take medications. To avoid dehydration which may occur as a result of fever and vomiting, drink lots of water.

2. Severe dengue fever is a medical emergency that necessitates immediate medical care or hospitalization.

In the case of a critical condition, hospitalization is required, which may include the following:

  • Intravenous fluids, IV medications and injections, and drips are all examples of intravenous therapy.
  • Transfusion of platelets
  • Rest and observation