Parkinson’s disease - Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Parkinson's disease is a movement disorder that occurs when nerve cells (neurons) in a specific region of the brain stop producing the chemical dopamine. The disorder is also known as shaking palsy or paralysis agitans. For treatment and queries contact our experts and medical specialists at BEWELL hospital.

  • Tremor is defined as involuntary and rhythmic movement of the hands, arms, legs, and jaw.
  • Muscle rigidity or stiffness of the limbs-most commonly found in the arms, shoulders, and neck.
  • Gradual lack of spontaneous movement, which frequently results in lower mental skills or reaction speed, voice alterations, less facial expressiveness, and so on.
  • Gradual loss of automatic movement, which may result in decreased blinking, swallowing frequency, and drooling.
  • A stooped, flexed posture with elbows, knees, and hips bent.
  • Unstable movement or balance
  • Dementia or depression
  • Causes Dopamine deficiency

    Parkinson's disease symptoms are mostly caused by low or declining levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter. It occurs when dopamine-producing cells in the brain die.

    Dopamine is involved in the transmission of messages to the portion of the brain that controls movement and coordination. As a result, low dopamine levels might make it difficult for people to control their movements. As dopamine levels continue to plummet, symptoms worsen.

    Low levels of norepinephrine

    Damage to the nerve terminals that produce another neurotransmitter, norepinephrine, which helps blood circulation and other automatic body activities, may also occur in Parkinson's disease.

    Low norepinephrine levels in Parkinson's disease may raise the risk of both motor and nonmotor symptoms, including:

  • rigidity and stiffness
  • Instability of posture
  • tremor
  • anxiety
  • difficulties concentrating
  • dementia
  • depression
  • What is the treatment for Parkinson's disease?

    Parkinson's illness has no known cure. Medication and other treatments, on the other hand, can help alleviate some of your symptoms. Exercise can considerably improve your Parkinson's symptoms. Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language therapy can also help with walking and balance issues, eating and swallowing difficulties, and speech disorders. For some people, surgery is an option.

    What are the drugs used to treat Parkinson's disease?

    Medications are used to treat Parkinson's disease by:

  • Assisting nerve cells in the brain in the production of dopamine.
  • The effects of dopamine in the brain are mimicked. Blocking an enzyme in the brain that breaks down dopamine.
  • Reducing certain specific Parkinson's disease symptoms.
  • What surgical treatments are available for Parkinson's disease?

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a procedure that involves implanting electrodes in the brain that send electrical impulses to block or alter the aberrant activity that causes symptoms. Most of the key movement symptoms of Parkinson's disease, such as tremor, slowness of movement (bradykinesia), and stiffness, can be treated with DBS (rigidity).

    The surgical insertion of a feeding tube into the small intestine is required for carbidopa-levodopa infusion. This tube delivers a gel form of the drug carbidopa-levodopa (Duopa®). This method of continuous medication infusion maintains a steady dose in the body. This is beneficial to people who had a variable response to the oral form of carbidopa-levodopa but are still benefiting from the combo therapy.

    Pallidotomy is the surgical removal of a tiny area of the brain that governs movement (the globus pallidus). Pallidotomy can aid in the reduction of involuntary movements (dyskinesias), muscle stiffness, and tremor.

    Thalamotomy is the surgical removal of a tiny portion of the thalamus. This may benefit a limited proportion of patients who have significant arm or hand tremors.

    For treatment and queries contact our experts and medical specialists at BEWELL hospital.